Why Is Direction Of Current Opposite To Flow Of Electrons LED’s in Lighting

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LED’s in Lighting

LEDs or light emitting diodes are an electronic light source. LEDs were first discovered in Russia in the mid-1920s, but could not be used commercially until 1962 when they were introduced as a commercially viable electronic component. Early LEDs were made of gallium arsenide and produced low-intensity red and infrared light. Now, other materials are added to the gallium that allow the creation of shorter light wavelengths and different colors.

LEDs, like all diodes, are made of very thin layers of semiconductor material, one layer will have an excess of electrons, while the next will have a deficit of electrons. An LED consists of a chip of semiconductor material impregnated with other materials to produce the desired color. current flows easily from the positive pole of the chip to the negative, but it will not easily flow in the opposite direction – cathode or P-type, to the negative side – cathode or N-type. This is generally known as a PN junction. Electrons and holes – known as charge carriers flow into the electrodes with different voltages. When an electron encounters a hole, it drops to a lower energy level and releases energy in the form of photons

The wavelength or color of the emitted light depends on the energy gap or bandgap of the materials used in the production of the PN junction. All LEDs are manufactured from direct bandgap materials to produce light in the visible spectrum.

Typical indicator LEDs require very little power to operate, generally between 2 V – 4 V and no more than 20 mW – 7 W – 8 W LED chips are now being made available by manufacturers to the general lighting market and are estimated to directly replace incandescent bulbs. filament in the next 5 years. Higher power and light output pose specific challenges for LED chip manufacturers in creating a reliable product for the commercial market. Today’s high power LEDs require much larger semiconductor dies for mounting and also require specially designed heatsinks to remove excess heat from the semiconductor. Heat drastically reduces the lifetime of the diode.

LEDs are the most efficient form of lighting available today. LED manufacturer Lumileds released a 5 W LED chip in 2002. 2003 saw a breakthrough in commercially available LEDs with Cree releasing an LED chip with a luminous efficiency of 65lm/w. In 2008, Nexxus Lighting released the Array LED bulb range, with a luminous efficacy of 105 lm/W, the brightest and most efficient LED lamps commercially available today. In comparison, halogen and incandescent bulbs have a light efficiency of about 15 lm/W, while fluorescent tubes produce 100 lm/W. With LED manufacturing technology improving every day, it’s easy to see why LEDs will be the lighting source of the future.

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