Which Of The Following Best Describes The Circular Flow Model Detecting Rapid Kinetics

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Detecting Rapid Kinetics

Chemical kinetics or reaction kinetics is the study of rates of chemical processes. For a reaction to occur, a collision must occur. This collision must be properly oriented and have enough energy to break the necessary bonds.

The study of chemical kinetics involves research on how different experimental conditions can affect the rate of chemical reactions and produce information about the reaction mechanism and transition states. It also includes the construction of mathematical models that can describe the characteristics of a chemical reaction.

Factors affecting the reaction rate

Chemical kinetics deals with the experimental determination of reaction rates from which rate laws and rate constants are derived. There are several factors that affect the rates of chemical reactions. For example, the particle size distribution of a material, which can be performed using a particle size analyzer, will affect the reactivity of solids involved in chemical reactions. Other factors are listed below:

Variations in reaction rates depend on which substances are reacting. Fast reactions include acid reactions, salt formation, and ion exchange. Reactions are usually slow when covalent bonds are formed between molecules and when large molecules are formed.

The physical state, i.e. solid, liquid or gaseous state of the reactant is also an important factor in the rate of change. When the reactants are in the same phase, thermal motion brings them into contact. If they are in different phases, the reaction is limited to the interface between the reactants and reactions can only occur in the area of ​​their contact. Vigorous shaking and mixing may be required to complete the reaction.

According to the collision theory of chemical reactions, concentration is an important factor because molecules must collide to react with each other. When the concentration of reactants increases, the collision frequency of molecules increases, bumping into each other more often. Increasing the amount of one or more reactants causes more frequent collusion, increasing the reaction rate.

Molecules at a higher temperature have more thermal energy and the frequency of collisions is higher at higher temperatures.

Catalysts are substances that are used to facilitate reactions, but remain chemically unchanged afterwards. The reaction rate increases when the catalyst enables a different reaction mechanism with a lower activation energy.

When the pressure increases in a gaseous reaction, the number of collisions between the reactants will also increase, increasing the rate of the reaction.

  1. Nature of reactants
  2. Mental state
  3. Concentration
  4. Temperature
  5. Catalysts
  6. Pressure

Stopped flow

The stopped-flow instrument is the stirring device most commonly used to study rapid kinetics. Small amounts of solution are rapidly ejected from syringes into a high-efficiency mixer to initiate a rapid reaction. These reactions are usually recorded by spectroscopic techniques such as UV absorbance, fluorescence or circular dichroism. The most commonly used detection method is fluorescence spectroscopy due to its high sensitivity.

Stopped-flow instruments can be equipped with up to four syringes, one for the sample and two or three syringes for double or sequential mixing of reagents.

Fast kinetic fluorescence

This is another instrument designed specifically for the detection of fast kinetics. Combined with Bio-Logic stopped-flow and damped-flow equipment, it forms a very powerful system for kinetic analysis, with high sensitivity and very efficient data collection. The spectrometer can be configured to measure reactions using UV absorbance plus fluorescence or two different fluorescence wavelengths.

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