When Current Flows Through A Coil Of Wire It Creates The Workings of a DC Motor

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The Workings of a DC Motor

Electric motors are all around us. In our homes alone, almost all the mechanical and electrical movements you see around are powered by a DC (direct current) electric motor and an AC (alternating current) electric motor.

In 1873, Zénobe Gramme created the modern direct current electric motor. Gramme connected his invented dynamo to another apparatus and controlled it like a motor. His invention, the Gramme device, was the first electric motor to be demonstrated in the field.

Two good examples of DC electrical inventions are the innovative ball bearing motor and the unusual homo polar motor created by Michael Faraday.

In general, a simple DC electric motor consists of six basic parts. These are the rotor or armature, brushes, shaft, commutator, field magnet and DC power supply. An electric motor is driven by magnets that use magnetic fields to create torque, thus starting the motor. Those who have played with magnets before are familiar with the elementary principle of magnets, that like poles repel and opposite poles attract. Electromagnetic forces of repulsion and attraction within the electric motor cause the DC motor to create rotational motion.

The magnets are polarized, with a negative and positive section. Even with relatively small magnets, repulsion of like poles and attraction of opposite poles is evident. A DC electric motor uses these components to virtually transform electrical current into motion.

A DC electric motor needs at least one electromagnet. The electromagnet serves as the source of the electric motor and changes the flow of electricity as the motor moves, changing its polarization to keep the motor running. Other magnetic fields are either electromagnets or permanent magnets. The electromagnet is usually located in the center of the motor and rotates in permanent magnets.

A DC electric motor contains coils of wire that rotate in a magnetic field. The coil is placed in a fixed magnet. The electric current in the coil is supplied by means of two brushes which make moving connections with the split ring. The forces applied to the coils of wire produce motion or torque on the coil. The coil also acts as a tiny magnetic dipole.

To better understand and imagine a simple DC electric motor, imagine a wheel split in two between two magnets. In this case, the DC motor wheel is an electromagnet. The two permanent external magnets are negative and positive. Now suppose that the right magnet is positive and the left magnet is negative.

The coils of wire on the wheel of the DC motor are introduced with an electric current and this current turns on the magnetic drive. In order for the DC motor to spin more, the wheels on the positive permanent magnet must be positively charged, and the negative permanent magnet must also be negatively charged. And since opposite charges attract and like charges repel, the wheel moves so that the negative part of it turns to the right and the positive part of the wheel turns to the left. The magnetic force allows the wheel to spin, therefore the motion is used to perform and operate.

The consistency and simple design of DC motors make them an ideal option for a myriad of different uses. DC motors are mainly used for multiple applications such as remote control cars and electric shavers.

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