The Flow Of Electrical Current Is Possible Because Electrons Are Emergence of Photovoltaics

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Emergence of Photovoltaics

Photovoltaics offers consumers the possibility of producing electricity in a clean, quiet and reliable way. Photovoltaic systems consist of photovoltaic cells, devices that convert light energy directly into electricity. Since the light source is usually the sun, they are often called solar cells. The word photovoltaic comes from “photo”, which means light, and “voltaic”, which refers to the production of electricity.

Thus, the photovoltaic process is “the production of electricity directly from sunlight”. Photovoltaic is often called PV. PV systems are installed by consumers who already have electricity from the grid, but want to start living more independently or are concerned about the environment. For some applications where small amounts of electricity are needed, such as emergency talk boxes, PV systems are often cost-effective even when the power grid is not very far away.

When applications require larger amounts of electricity and are located far from existing power lines, photovoltaic systems can in many cases offer the cheapest and most cost-effective choice.

Used today in street lights, door openers, and other low-power tasks, photovoltaics are becoming increasingly popular around the world as their cost drops and efficiency increases.

The total peak power of installed solar PV arrays worldwide was about 5,300 MW at the end of 2005, with grid systems representing the largest area of ​​growth. Note that solar PV arrays have capacity factors of around 20%, which is lower than many other industrial power sources. Therefore, the installed base peak generation of 2005 would give an average power of approximately 1,060 MW (20% × 5,300). This represented 0.03 percent of global demand at the time.

Large-scale incentive programs, which offer financial incentives such as the ability to sell excess electricity back into the public grid (“feed-in tariffs”), have greatly accelerated the pace of solar PV installations in many countries including Japan, Germany and the United States.

Although solar PV does not cause direct emissions during operation, it can indirectly cause pollution due to the industrial processes used in the production and subsequent disposal of PV modules. Over the lifetime of the module, the years of clean energy produced will more than offset this initial pollution.

PV cells convert sunlight directly into electricity without creating air or water pollution. PV cells are made of at least two layers of semiconductor material. One layer has a positive charge, the other negative. When light enters the cell, the semiconductor atoms absorb some of the photons from the light, freeing electrons from the negative layer of the cell to flow through the outer circuit and back to the positive layer. This flow of electrons produces an electric current.

To maximize their utility, dozens of individual photovoltaic cells are interconnected in a sealed, weatherproof package called a module. When two modules are connected in series, their voltage is doubled while the current remains constant. When two modules are connected in parallel, their current is doubled while the voltage remains constant. In order to achieve the desired voltage and current, the modules are connected in series and in parallel in what is called a PV array. The flexibility of a modular PV system allows designers to create solar power systems that can meet a wide range of electrical needs, no matter how large or small.

Unlike technologies based on fossil fuels, solar energy does not lead to harmful emissions during operation, but the production of panels leads to a certain amount of pollution.

Although PV systems can require significant investment, they can be cheaper than paying the costs associated with extending the electrical grid.

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