Flow Control In Osi Model Is Done By Which Layer How to Troubleshoot A Network Using the OSI Model – Part 1

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How to Troubleshoot A Network Using the OSI Model – Part 1

IT professionals typically approach any network problem or ‘troubleshooting’ with an OSI (Open System Interconnection) approach. OSI implements protocols in layers, allowing you to systematically solve problems layer by layer.

When solving problems using the OSI model, you can start at the very beginning, layer 1, and work your way up; start at the top, going from layer 7 down to 1, or start troubleshooting from the layer you think is the problem and then move in your chosen direction. Whichever way you choose to work will get you where you want to go, but most technicians choose to start with Layer 1 simply because it’s easier to start with the basics first.

Start with layer 1, the ‘physical layer’, the layer that focuses on media, signal and transmission. It is everything that passes or acts in the network on an electrical or mechanical level. This would mean that you will be troubleshooting cables, physical hardware, and other devices. Troubleshooting this layer will allow you to discover if it’s an underlying physical problem – for most IT technicians, it’s a good place to start.

Go to Layer 2 if you haven’t found a direct physical problem because Layer 2 is the data link layer. Layer 2 essentially provides a way or means of transferring data between items in the network and handles/handles errors that occur in the first layer. Layer 2 consists of 2 smaller sublayers, Media Access Control (MAC) which allows data access from computers on the network and Logical Link Control (LLC) which controls physical layer errors, flow control and frame synchronization (the process by which incoming signals are identified or sequences). It enables the simultaneous existence of several protocols in the network, as well as transport to the destination.

This layer can be resolved in Windows using the ARP command. Address Resolution Protocol or ARP is an IP protocol used to map an Internet Protocol address to a physical address, or in technical terms a MAC address. Once listed and recognized, the network device responds with an address. From this you will determine the unique hardware address and identify problems occurring between software and hardware or other problems occurring at layer 2.

If you want to learn more about how to troubleshoot network problems using the OSI model, check out Part 2 of the book How to Troubleshoot Network Problems Using the OSI Model.

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