Describe The Factors Affecting Blood Flow Through The Cardiovascular System Our Lifestyle Can Promote Development of Cancer

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Our Lifestyle Can Promote Development of Cancer

Cancer is a broad term that describes a disease that occurs when cellular changes cause uncontrolled cell growth and division. The cell is instructed to die so the body can replace it with a newer, better functioning cell. Cancer cells lack components that instruct them to stop dividing and die. As a result, they accumulate in the body, using up oxygen and nutrients that would normally feed other cells.

Cancerous cells can form tumors, weaken the immune system, and cause other changes that prevent the body from functioning normally.

Cancerous cells can appear in one area and then spread through the lymph nodes. These are clusters of immune cells located throughout the body.

According to the WHO, the global burden of cancer is estimated to have increased to 18.1 million new cases and 9.6 million deaths in 2018. One in 5 men and one in 6 women worldwide will develop cancer in their lifetime, and one in 8 men and one in 11 women die from the disease.

There are many risk factors responsible for the development of cancer. In addition to biological, environmental and occupational risk factors, lifestyle factors also play a significant role in the development of various types of cancer.

Lifestyle factors

Many of the factors that potentially affect our chances of developing cancer stem from our lifestyle and personal choices. This means that we have some control over our exposure to these factors. A few of the modifiable lifestyle factors responsible for cancer are as follows:

Overweight and obesity –

Globally, it is estimated that 3.6% of all new cancers in adults can be attributed to excess body weight. Higher body fat has been identified as a likely cause of gallbladder cancer, advanced prostate cancer and ovarian cancer. There is compelling evidence that abdominal obesity increases the risk of colon and endometrial cancer and is a likely cause of pancreatic cancer. Adult weight gain has been identified as a further likely cause of postmenopausal breast cancer. Thus, maintaining a healthy weight throughout life has clear health benefits and may have an important protective effect against cancer.

Physical inactivity –

Globally, an estimated 135,000 cancer deaths each year are attributable to physical inactivity. Physical activity protects against certain types of cancer and also limits weight gain, which itself is the cause of some types of cancer.

To reduce the risk of cancer, adults should accumulate 150 to 300 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity or 75 to 150 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous activity, each week. Activity at the upper end of the scale, ie 300 minutes of moderate / 150 minutes of vigorous activity, is needed to prevent unhealthy weight gain and some types of cancer. It is also recommended to minimize time spent sitting for long periods of time and to break up long periods of sitting as often as possible.

diet –

Worldwide, an estimated 374,000 cancer deaths each year can be attributed to low fruit and vegetable intake.

A varied diet that includes nutritious foods, including vegetables, fruits, grains, dairy products, lean meat, fish, and water, and limiting intake of foods with saturated fat, added salt, and added sugars is recommended. Standard dietary guidelines recommend consuming five portions of vegetables and two portions of fruit per day and limiting meat consumption to 455 g of lean meat per week, or up to 65 g per day.

tobacco –

WHO identifies tobacco use as the single largest avoidable risk factor for cancer mortality worldwide and estimates that tobacco use causes up to 1.5 million cancer deaths each year.

Tobacco smoke affects the general population through exposure to secondhand smoke. There is also the danger of tobacco smoke. It is the residue of nicotine and other chemicals in tobacco, which remains on clothing, furniture, curtains, walls, bedding, carpets, dust, vehicles and other surfaces long after smoking has stopped. People are exposed to these chemicals by touching contaminated surfaces or by inhaling exhaust gases from those surfaces.

Quitting smoking reduces the risk of lung cancer and other major forms of cancer. Five years after quitting smoking, the risk of mouth, throat, esophagus and bladder cancer is halved, and the risk of dying from lung cancer is halved after 10 years.

Quitting smoking can also contribute to short- and long-term health improvements, including lower heart rate and blood pressure, improved circulation and lung function, and reduced risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. The WHO reports that people of all ages, who have already developed smoking-related health problems, can also benefit from quitting smoking.

alcohol –

The WHO has estimated that excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for 351,000 cancer deaths worldwide each year. The increased risk of cancer starts at a low level and increases with higher levels of alcohol consumption. When taken together, tobacco smoking and alcohol act synergistically to increase the incidence of upper gastrointestinal cancer. In general, it is considered safe to limit consumption to no more than two drinks per day for men and one drink per day for women.

UV radiation –

According to the WHO, there were 65,000 melanoma-related deaths worldwide in 2000. There is strong evidence that UV-emitting tanning devices (tanning beds) cause skin and eye melanoma and are positively associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. An increased risk of melanoma is associated with the use of tanning beds before the age of 30. In order to reduce UV exposure and promote the use of sunscreen and protective clothing, a change in our attitude is needed.

Infections –

Globally, it is estimated that 16.1% of new cancers are attributable to infections. However, estimates vary widely among regions. According to the World Cancer Report 2008, human papillomavirus, helicobacter pylori, and hepatitis B and C viruses have been identified as the main infectious agents, accounting for 6.1%, 5.4% and 4.3% of all cancer cases at the international level. Together they cause 1.9 million cases of cancer worldwide.

Therefore, taking appropriate preventive measures will go a long way in preventing the development of many types of cancer.

Bottom line –

All over the world, it has been observed that the incidence of all types of cancer is constantly increasing, for which a large number of risk factors are responsible. Regardless of all other risk factors, our lifestyle is responsible for many types of cancer. It is worth knowing that most factors of our lifestyle can be changed. With their appropriate modification, we can stop the development of many types of cancer.

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