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History Of Raspberry Plants
According to Luther Burbank, who studied and hybridized raspberries and blackberries more than any other horticulturist, and wrote his classic 8-volume treatise on small fruits and fruit improvement in 1921; The red raspberry plant has been cultivated in Europe for centuries, growing wild from Greece to Spain and in the north from Norway to Sweden.
The red raspberry, Rubus idaeus, is an autochthonous berry bush in Turkey, and was collected by the people who inhabited Troy (Troada, Turkey) from vines that grew in the foothills there in the first century BC.
The Romans spread raspberry seeds throughout their empire, as evidenced by raspberry vine seeds in archeological excavations in England that show the English were gardeners who cultivated raspberry vines and raspberry bushes profusely.
William Prince founded the first nursery in the American colonies in 1737 in Flushing, New York, which, among other things, offered raspberry seedlings for sale.
Luther Burbank introduced many raspberry hybrids to American horticulture. He described blackberries, raspberries, and blackberries as the most genetically complex fruit in American fruit research.
Burbank produced many crosses between blackberry, blackberry and raspberry that showed every possible combination of berry quality in between. One of these raspberries was even white in color and delicious, but too soft for commercial production and planting.
Raspberry was hybridized with various blackberry plants to produce boysenberry and loganberry. Loganberry is a hybrid cross between a California berry and a red raspberry. The ‘phenomenal berry’ was a cross between the rose berry and arctic raspberry hybridized by Burbank in 1905.
Luther Burbank made a hybrid cross between a strawberry plant and a raspberry plant which resulted in a hybrid bush, completely thornless, but the fruit produced on a 2-5 ft cane was not of good enough quality to succeed as a commercial raspberry.
The raspberry bush or vine grows up to 3 meters in height, and the berry is easily completely separated from the stem, requiring no additional cleaning or preparation before eating. Wild raspberries are an important wildlife berry for animal and bird food when they ripen in summer and fall. Raspberries are best marketed through pick-and-your-own operations, due to their short shelf life, but demand for raspberries has increased to the point that berries are shipped in refrigerated air freight to meet the demand for raspberries.
The growth habit of raspberries can be described as trailing raspberry vines or as erect, erect canes. Many raspberry varieties produce a non-bearing cane in the first year, which flowers and bears berries during the second season. This non-wearable cane is called Primocane. Everbearing raspberry plants can produce two crops a year, one in the spring and the other in the fall. Everbearing raspberry bushes can produce a first-season crop in the fall on primocanes. Popular perennial shrubs and vines include: Heritage red raspberry, Autumn Bliss and Amity red raspberry. Raspberry roots are shallow and may require additional watering during dry periods. Raspberries can be picked by hand or by machine, and frequent picking is required every 3-4 days over a period of several weeks.
The widespread occurrence of red raspberry is a diverse and complex gene pool in the fruit kingdom, they grow as upright bushes or as vines, but black raspberry only grows as an upright bush.
The black raspberry, Rubus occidentalis, also known as wild black raspberry or black raspberry, was introduced to America in the 1840s by Nicholas Longworth of Ohio and was an excellent addition to the cultivated fruit grown everywhere. The purple cap raspberry developed from the original, American raspberry Rubis neglectus, and is native to New York state. Black raspberries are native only to North America, mostly the eastern parts excluding the Gulf States. Black raspberry is also called wild raspberry, and it has been used for centuries to treat pregnant women. A tea made from this wild raspberry was published as a relaxation remedy in a famous English medical study in 1941, which also treats morning sickness, aid in childbirth, uterine irritation and threatened miscarriage. Black raspberries are grown as a backyard berry more than commercial berries because they are less cold hardy, less productive, and more susceptible to disease damage than red raspberries.
Many useful products are obtained from raspberries: ice cream, jam, jelly, black raspberry petits fours, raspberry juice and of course fresh raspberry fruits.
Raspberries contain extreme amounts of antioxidants that are said to fight cancer, intervene in heart disease and offer many other health benefits due to their high content of vitamin A, vitamin B1, B2, vitamin C, niacin and the minerals calcium, phosphorus, iron and potassium .
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